From 1686 to 1695 Giambattista Vico resided at Castello De Vargas in the service of the Marquis Domenico Rocca, who employed Vico to tutor his children. It was at this place, said to enjoy ‘a most beautiful situation and the most perfect air’, that the philosopher developed his thinking and wrote his fundamental text ‘New Science’. The Fondazione Giambattista Vico restored the castle, bringing it back to life, and established on its site the Museo Vichiano and the Biblioteca del Parco Nazionale del Cilento e Vallo del Diano, which holds more than 20 thousand volumes. As visitors wander through the rooms of the palace, the presence of Vico and his thought will echo with every step they take. The small town of Vatolla lies halfway between Paestum and Elea-Velia, thus creating a metaphorical link between the origins of western civilisation and of modern thought.